Tuesday, May 24, 2011

The King James Code

Dr. David R. ReaganPDFBy Dr. David R. Reagan

There has been much hoopla recently considering Bible codes. Some claim they exist. Others deny it. But there can be no denial that the King James Bible contains a code that was devised by the translators themselves, and which, unfortunately, has been carried over into almost all translations since that time. I say unfortunately because I believe the King James Bible code has robbed the Bible of some of its meaning and impact.

The Reasons for the Code

The code was based upon the Jewish tradition of never pronouncing the name of God. The rabbis felt that God's name was so holy that when they came to it in the Hebrew scriptures, they refused to pronounce it. They would, instead, substitute for it the Hebrew word, Adonai, which means Lord.

Another motivation for refusing to pronounce the Lord's name was to keep from violating the third commandment, "You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain" (Exodus 20:7). They believed that if they never pronounced God's name, they could never violate this commandment.

God's Personal Name

The name of God is Yahweh. Bible scholars refer to this name as the "tetragrammaton" (meaning "[a word] having four letters"). No one knows for certain that this is the true name of God, but that is the consensus of opinion by scholars. The reason there is doubt is because the name is rendered in Hebrew as YHWH. There were no vowels in biblical Hebrew, so the correct pronunciation cannot be determined from the text, and since the Jews developed a tradition of not pronouncing the name, its pronunciation was lost over a period of time.

When transliterating Hebrew into English, another tradition developed of substituting the letter J for Y. Thus, Yerushalayim became Jerusalem, Yosef became Joseph, Ya'acov became Jacob, and Yeshua became Jesus. The translators also converted the Hebrew W into V. So, they took YHWH and transformed it into JHVH, and then they added vowels to produce Jehovah as the name of God. But again, the consensus of scholarly opinion is that the name of God was pronounced Yahweh. And therefore, a term like Jehovah-jirah (Genesis 22:14), meaning "The Lord my provider," should really be pronounced Yahweh-yirah.

In the King James Bible, the translators actually used the word Jehovah for the name of God in four places (Exodus 6:3; Psalm 83:18; Isaiah 12:2; and Isaiah 26:4). They used the name three times in titles given to God, such as "Jehovah-jirah" in Genesis 22:14 (see also Exodus 17:15 and Judges 6:24).

The Revelation of God's Name

Yahweh first appears in the Bible in Genesis 2:4 where it is used in conjunction with Adonai. It appears in the Hebrew text as Yahweh Elohim (Yahweh God) and is translated into English as LORD God. The first use of the name alone is in Genesis 4:1 where Eve is quoted as saying the birth of Cain was due to the help of Yahweh. In English translations, the statement appears as follows: "I have gotten a manchild with the help of the LORD."

In Exodus 3 we are told that God spoke to Moses from the burning bush and told him to go to Pharaoh and demand the release of the children of Israel from captivity (Exodus 3:1-12). Moses responded by asking what he would say when Pharaoh requested the name of his God (Exodus 3:13). God told Moses to tell Pharaoh that he had been sent by "Yahweh the God of your fathers." The English translation is "The LORD, the God of your fathers" (Exodus 3:15).

Later, God spoke to Moses again and said, "I am Yahweh, and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as El Shaddai [God Almighty], but by My name, Yahweh, I did not make Myself known to them" (Exodus 6:2-3). The English translations usually read: "I am the LORD, and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as God Almighty, but by My name, LORD, I did not make Myself known to them." Notice how much more meaningful this statement is when the actual name of God — Yahweh — is used. In fact, the statement really doesn't make any sense unless Yahweh is used.

This statement in Exodus 6 makes it clear that God did not reveal his personal name to anyone before the time of Moses. Therefore, when the name is used in Genesis, it appears there because those passages were written by Moses who applied the name retroactively to a period of history when it was unknown.

The King James Code

Now, to avoid the use of the sacred, personal name of God, the King James translators developed a code that is still used in most versions today, even the modern ones. The code is as follows:

1) Elohim is rendered as God (Genesis 1:1).

2) Yahweh is rendered as LORD — all in capital letters (Genesis 4:1).

3) Adonai is rendered as Lord — a capital L followed by lower case letters (Genesis 18:27).

4) Adonai Yahweh is rendered as Lord GOD (Genesis 15:2).

5) Yahweh Elohim is rendered as LORD God (Genesis 2:4).

So, every time the personal name of God — Yahweh — appears, it is rendered as LORD unless it appears in conjunction with Adonai, in which case it is rendered GOD. But either way, its presence is always indicated by all capital letters.

To say the least, it is very confusing. And, as I have already indicated with Exodus 6:2-3, the code can rob the passage of its meaning.

A Solution

It would be a blessing if modern translators would drop this confusing and misleading code and simply translate the personal name of God as Yahweh.

I'm glad to report that the new Holman Christian Standard Bible, published in 2004 and sponsored by the Southern Baptist Convention, uses the name, Yahweh, in crucial places where it is necessary for a passage to make sense. The first edition did this in 78 places. The second edition, which appeared in 2009, expanded the use of Yahweh to 495 places. The tetragrammaton actually appears 6,828 times in the Hebrew Scriptures.

Think of it this way — Would you want someone who loves you to always call you by a title? Would you want them to say, "I love you madam," or "I love you mister"? Or would you want them to use your name?

Intimacy Requires a Name

God has a personal name. The biblical writers who had a personal relationship with Him used that name repeatedly in adoration and praise of Him. Why shouldn't we? He desires intimacy with us (John 4:23).

Before I had a personal relationship with God's Son, I always called him by His title, Christ (Messiah). But once I came to know Him, I started calling Him by His personal name, Jesus (Yeshua). Which do you think He would prefer to hear: "I love you, Christ" or "I love you, Jesus"? I don't think there is any doubt.

"God spoke further to Moses and said to him, 'I am Yahweh... My name is Yahweh.'" (Exodus 6:2-3)


DrNofog said...

As a point of interest, some scholars point out that the 1st use of YHWH in Genesis 2:4 appears to be an emphasis to His covenant-keeping relationship with mankind at their creation, and seems to then be used that way thru-out the OT.

Anonymous said...

Wow this was an excelent essay the points of which would work well when dealing with those of the "KJV ONLY" persuation. I am no Bible scholar but I have read the scripture through many times. Thanks for the nudge for now I will have to look up the Hebrew names to fully understand the meaning. Lmack

Tommy said...

Some great info there mate; but I have surfed up the bible translation you mention and checked the two main verses that I check when looking at Bibles.

KJV.1Tim 3 v 16 “And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: *GOD* was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into glory”.

Here the KJV says *GOD* was manifest in the flesh, obviously referring to Jesus. Its saying Jesus is God!

The Holman 1Tim3:16 "And most certainly, the mystery of godliness is great; *He* was manifested in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen by angels, preached among the Gentiles, believed on in the world, taken up in glory”.

The HOLMAN says *He* was manifest in the flesh' which means absolutely nothing, its simply making a plain statement that *He* was manifest in the flesh, WITH NO STATEMENT OF DEITY.

The other one is KJV 1John 5 v 7 “For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one”.

The KJV is proclaiming the TRINITY; and now check it out in the Holman 1John 5:7 For there are three that testify:

Its not doing that. The King Jimmy proclaims these things in plain (albeit Elizabethan) English, whilst the new versions remove it that Jesus is God in the flesh, easy peasy lemon squeezy. Tommy

Rodney said...

The context of the passages referenced here leave no mistake regarding the identity in question. The fact is that we all know it is God, whether Lord GOD, LORD GOD, or just plain Lord, it is all the same. That particular argument is trivial.

Rodney said...

Frankly, it would make no difference if Yeshua was included in the Hebrew translation of Genesis, the fact is that he is the Creator, and by him was all things made. I believe their argument is with seeking to either identify with a Trinity or deny its existence. The Bible identifies clearly that there are three that bear witness in Heaven, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit and that these three are one. They are not three seperate Gods but one God.

Rodney said...

30 Years ago this argument would have never surfaced yet now we live in an age where worship services rival that of modern rock concerts and preachers as celebrities. The fact is the church was created to exalt self but to glorify God. If it means we have to appeal to style and format of the world, then what message are we really bearing?

If the message compells us to embrace selfish carnal lusts or the wealth of this world, then little discernment is required to identify the author of such a message. If the worship style is designed to rival that of a night club or rock concert, then we know where that orignates from too! Want to make a real difference, stop conforming to the world in which you were called out of!

Rodney said...

Sorry about the typo, the Church was not created to exalt self.